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INDIA


India occupies a strategic position in Asia, looking across the seas to Arabia and Africa on the West and to Burma, Malaysia and the Indonesian Archipelago on the East. Geographically, the Himalayan ranges keeps India apart from the rest of Asia. The fertility of the Indo-Gangetic belt, however, had proved to be such an irresistible magnet that hordes of people pressed into India through the mountain passes from ancient times. India lies to the north of the equator between 8º and 37º north latitude and 68° and 97º east longitude. It is bounded on the south west by the Arabian Sea and on the south east by the Bay of Bengal. On the north, north east and north west lie the Himalayan ranges. The southern tip, Kanyakumari is washed by the Indian Ocean. India measures 3214 km from north to south and 2933 km from the east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq. km. and a coastline of 7516.5 km. Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshdweep in the Arabian Sea are parts of India. India shares its political borders with Pakistan and Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Burma on the east. The northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan.

India has seven major physiographic regions

1. Northern Mountains including the Himalayas and the mountain ranges in the north east.
2. The Indo-Gangetic plain.
3. Central Highlands.
4. Peninsular plateau.
5. East Coast.
6. West Coast.
7. Bordering seas and islands.

23% of the total geographical area of the country is occupied by the forests.

Major Rivers of India

Ganga (called Ganges) is the largest river in India. It rises from Western Himalayas at Gangotri. After flowing for about 2500 Km., it finally joins in Bay of Bengal.
Brahmaputra is another river that rises near Manasarovar. It flows eastwards and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh.

India's Capital : NEW DELHI
Area : 3,287,263 sq km
Population : 935.7 Million
Male population : 52%
Female population : 48%
Urban Population : 26%
Rural Population : 74%
Density : 273 per sq km
Life Expectancy : 62.8 years
Literacy : 52.11%
Male literacy : 64.13%
Female literacy : 39.29%
Percapita Income : Rs.2,506
Main crops : Rice, wheat, millet, bajra.
Real GDP Growth Rate : 7.0%
Currency : RUPEE
States : 25
UNION TERRITORIES : 6
NATIONAL CAPITAL TERRITORY : 1

India's National Insignia

The state emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka as preserved in the Sarnath Museum. The Government adopted the emblem on 26th January, 1950, the day when India became a Republic.

The National Anthem Consists of 5 Stanzas.

The following is Tagore's English rendering of the Stanza:

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab,
Sind, Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal.

NATIONAL SONG : VANDE MATARAM

NATIONAL FLAG : The national flag is a horizontal tri-colour of deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the Center of white band is a wheel, in navy blue. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band. It has 24 spokes.

NATIONAL CALENDAR : SAKA YEAR STARTING CHAITRA as its first month and Phalguna as the last month.

NATIONAL ANIMAL : TIGER

NATIONAL FLOWER : LOTUS

NATIONAL BIRD : PEACOCK

NATIONAL GAME : HOCKEY

INDIA'S HIGHEST AWARD : BHARAT RATNA

INDIA'S FATHER OF NATION : MAHATMA GANDHI

India'S Constitution

The Constitution of India came into effect on 26th January 1950. The constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949.

Citizenship: Citizenship rights are given to every person who is born in India or either of whose parents was born in India or who has been a resident of India for 5 years, immediately preceding the commencement of the Constitution.

Fundamental Rights: Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights, Right to Constitutional Remedies.

Indian Languages

As per constitution India has recognized 15 languages. There are 1652 mother tongues listed in the census, 33 are spoken by people numbering over 1 lakh. Popular languages Hindi(30%), Bengali (8%), Telugu (8%), Marathi (8%), Urdu (5%) and others.

Symbols of Heritage

India Gate
Qutab Minar
Redfort
Bahai Temple
Huma Yun's Tomb
Jama Masjid
Jantar Mantar
Meenakshi Temple
Jewish Synagogue
Golden Temple
Taj Mahal (one of the seven wonders of the world)
Buland Darwaza
Gateway of India
Charminar
Bodh Gaya
Basilica of Bom Jesus
Hawa Mahal
Sanchi Stupa
Jagannath Temple
Surya Temple
Khajuraho Temples
Somnath Temple and Others.

Indian Nobel Laureates

* Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) For Literature in 1913

* C.V.Raman (1888-1970) For Physics in 1930 (popularly known as Raman effect)

* Hargobind Khorana: For Medicine in 1968

* Mother Teresa: For Peace in 1979. She became Indian Citizen in 1948.

* Subramanian Chandrasekar (1910-1995) For Physics in 1983

National Anthem

Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka Jayahe
Bharata Bhagya Vidhata
Punjab Sindhu Gujarata Maratha
Dravida Utkal Banga
Vindhya Himachala Yamuna Ganga
Utchala Jaladhi Taranga
Tava Shubha Name Jage
Tava Shubha Ashisha Mage
Gahe Tava Jaya Gatha
Jana Gana Mangala Dayaka Jayahe
Bharata Bhagya Vidhata
Jaya He Jaya He Jaya He
Jaya Jaya Jaya Jaya He.


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